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Independent city in Virginia, United States
Norfolk, Virginia
City of Norfolk
Clockwise from top: Downtown Norfolk skyline as viewed from across the Elizabeth River, USS Wisconsin battleship museum, Ocean View Pier, The Tide light rail, ships at Naval Station Norfolk, historic homes in Ghent

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Motto(s): 
Crescas (Latin for, "")
Norfolk, Virginia
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°55′N 76°12′W36°55′N 76°12′WWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for  / 36.917°N 76.200°WWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for  / 36.917; -76.200Coordinates: for 1 last update 2020/06/03 36°55′N36°55′N 76°12′W / 36.917°N 76.200°W / 36.917; -76.200Coordinates: for 1 last update 2020/06/03 36°55′N36°55′N 76°12′W / 36.917°N 76.200°W / 36.917; -76.200
CountryWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for  United States
State Virginia
Founded1682
Incorporated1736
Government
 • MayorKenny Alexander (D)
Area
 • Independent city96.40 sq mi (249.68 km2)
 • Land53.27 sq mi (137.98 km2)
 • Water43.13 sq mi (111.70 km2)
Elevation
7 ft (2.13 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Independent city242,803
 • Estimate 
(2018)[2]
244,076
 • Density2,500/sq mi (970/km2)
 • Urban
1,047,869
 • Metro
1,672,319
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code
23501-23515, 23517-23521, 23523, 23529, 23541, 23551
Area code(s)757, 948 (planned)
FIPS code51-57000[3]
GNIS feature ID1497051[4]
Websitewww.norfolk.gov

Norfolk (Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for /Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ˈnɔːrfʊ for 1 last update 2020/06/03 kk/ (listen) NOR-fuuk) is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803;[5] in 2018, the population was estimated to be 244,076[6] making it the second-most populous city in Virginia after neighboring Virginia Beach and the 91st largest city in the nation.

Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harbor of the same name located at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. It is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area, officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the west by the Elizabeth River and to the north by the Chesapeake Bay. It also shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. Norfolk is one of the oldest cities in Hampton Roads, and is considered to be the historic, urban, financial, and cultural center of the region.

The city has a long history as a strategic military and transportation point. The largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk, is located in Norfolk along with one of NATO''s principal Class I railroads, however the company is currently in the process of relocating their headquarters to Atlanta, Georgia. Norfolk is also home to Maersk Line, Limited, which manages the world''s Lynn, Norfolk, England) was granted a large land holding, through the head rights system, along the Lynnhaven River in 1636.

When the South Hampton Roads portion of the shire was separated, Thoroughgood suggested the name of his birthplace for the newly formed New Norfolk County. One year later, it was divided into two counties, Upper Norfolk and Lower Norfolk (the latter now incorporated into the City of Norfolk), chiefly on Thoroughgood'' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capital of Williamsburg, the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was soon driven into exile by the Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Woodford. His departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia.[11]

A shot fired by Lord Dunmore''s Episcopal Church

On New Year''s fleet of three ships shelled the city of Norfolk for more than eight hours. The gunfire, combined with fires started by the British and spread by the Patriots, destroyed more than 800 buildings, constituting nearly two-thirds of the city. The Patriot forces destroyed the remaining buildings for strategic reasons the following month.[12] Only the walls of Saint Paul''s.[13]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Nineteenth the 1 last update 2020/06/03 centuryNineteenth century[edit]

Norfolk, from Gosport, Virginia, New York Public Library

Following recovery from the Revolutionary War''s waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city suffered a serious economic setback. During the 1820s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas. Many moved west into the Piedmont, or further into Kentucky and Tennessee. Such migration also followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations.

Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery and manumissions increased in the two decades following the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an 1832 resolution for gradual abolition in the state. However, by that time the increased demand from the settlement of the lower South states had created a large internal market for slavery. The invention of the cotton gin in the late-eighteenth century had made profitable the cultivation of short-staple cotton in the uplands, which was widely practiced.

Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born and raised in Norfolk, became the first President of Liberia.

The American Colonization Society proposed to ""/wiki/Back-to-Africa_movement""Back-to-Africa movement"" free blacks and freed slaves to Africa by establishing the new colony of Liberia and paying for transportation. But most African-Americans wanted to stay in their birthplace of the United States and achieve freedom and rights there. For a period, many emigrants to Liberia from Virginia and North Carolina embarked from the port of Norfolk. Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a free person of color native to Norfolk, emigrated via the American Colonization Society and later was elected as the first president of Liberia, establishing a powerful family.[14]

On June 7, 1855, the 183-foot vessel Benjamin Franklin put into Hampton Roads for repairs. She had just sailed from the West Indies, where there had been an outbreak of yellow fever. The port health officer ordered the ship quarantined. After eleven days, a second inspection found no issues, so she was allowed to dock. A few days later, the first cases of yellow fever were discovered in Norfolk, and a machinist died from the disease on July 8. By August, several people were dying per day, and a third of the city''s Sewell''s Point. The large Naval Review at the Exposition demonstrated the peninsula''s largest naval base. Southern Democrats in Congress gained its location here. Commemorating the tricentennial anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the exposition featured many prominent officials, including President Theodore Roosevelt, members of Congress, and diplomats from twenty-one countries. By 1917, as the US prepared to enter World War I, the Naval Air Station Hampton Roads had been constructed on the former exposition grounds.[19]

In the first half of the twentieth century, the city of Norfolk expanded its borders through annexation. In 1906, the city annexed the incorporated town of Berkley, making the city cross the Elizabeth River.[20] In 1923, the city expanded to include Sewell''s turn-of-the-century constitution and discriminatory practices related to voter registration and elections.) The Virginia General Assembly prohibited state funding for integrated public schools.

In 1958, United States district courts in Virginia ordered schools to open for the first time on a racially integrated basis. In response, Governor James Lindsay Almond, Jr. ordered the schools closed. The Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals declared the state law to be in conflict with the state constitution and ordered all public schools to be funded, whether integrated or not. About ten days later, Almond capitulated and asked the General Assembly to rescind several "" laws.[27] In September 1959, seventeen black children entered six previously segregated Norfolk public schools. Virginian-Pilot editor Lenoir Chambers editorialized against massive resistance and earned the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing.[28]

With new suburban developments beckoning, many white middle-class residents moved out of the city along new highway routes, and Norfolk''s Granby Street commercial corridor, located just a few blocks inland from the waterfront. The opening of malls and large shopping centers drew off retail business from Granby Street.[29]

Norfolk''s skyline have been erected. In 1983, the city and The Rouse Company developed the Waterside festival marketplace to attract people back to the waterfront and catalyze further downtown redevelopment.[30] Waterside was redeveloped in 2017. Additionally the waterfront area hosts the Nauticus maritime museum and the USS Wisconsin. Other facilities opened in the ensuing years, including the Harbor Park baseball stadium, home of the Norfolk Tides Triple-A minor league baseball team. In 1995, the park was named the finest facility in minor league baseball by Baseball America.[31] Norfolk''s rising fortunes helped to expand the city''s streets.

A home in the Ghent neighborhood

Norfolk was burned down during the Revolutionary War. After the Revolution, Norfolk was rebuilt in the Federal style, based on Roman ideals. Federal-style homes kept Georgian symmetry, though they had more refined decorations to look like New World homes. Federal homes had features such as narrow sidelights with an embracing fanlight around the doorway, giant porticoes, gable or flat roofs, and projecting bays on exterior walls. Rooms were oval, elliptical or octagonal. Few of these federal rowhouses remain standing today. A majority of buildings were made of wood and had a simple construction.

Taylor-Whittle House (c. 1790), now occupied by the Junior League of Norfolk-Virginia Beach and the Norfolk Historical Society[36]

In the early nineteenth century, Neoclassical architectural elements began to appear in the federal style row homes, such as ionic columns in the porticoes and classic motifs over doorways and windows. Many Federal-style row houses were modernized by placing a Greek-style porch at the front. Greek and Roman elements were integrated into public buildings such as the old City Hall, the old Norfolk Academy, and the Customs House.

Greek-style homes gave way to Gothic Revival in the 1830s, which emphasized pointed arches, steep gable roofs, towers and tracer-lead windows. The Freemason Baptist Church and St. Mary''s record high was 105 °F (41 °C) on for 1 last update 2020/06/03 August 7, 1918, and July 24 and 25, 2010, and the record low was −3 °F (−19 °C) recorded on January 21, 1985.[37] Snow occurs sporadically, with an average annual accumulation of 5.8 inches.[38] Greek-style homes gave way to Gothic Revival in the 1830s, which emphasized pointed arches, steep gable roofs, towers and tracer-lead windows. The Freemason Baptist Church and St. Mary''s record high was 105 °F (41 °C) on August 7, 1918, and July 24 and 25, 2010, and the record low was −3 °F (−19 °C) recorded on January 21, 1985.[37] Snow occurs sporadically, with an average annual accumulation of 5.8 inches.[38]

Climate data for Norfolk International Airport, Virginia (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present[b])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
(29)
82
(28)
92
(33)
97
(36)
100
(38)
102
(39)
105
(41)
105
(41)
100
(38)
95
(35)
86
(30)
82
(28)
105
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 71.1
(21.7)
73.2
(22.9)
80.2
(26.8)
86.4
(30.2)
91.4
(33.0)
95.5
(35.3)
97.8
(36.6)
95.8
(35.4)
92.1
(33.4)
85.6
(29.8)
78.7
(25.9)
72.5
(22.5)
98.8
(37.1)
Average high °F (°C) 48.1
(8.9)
50.9
(10.5)
58.2
(14.6)
67.6
(19.8)
75.4
(24.1)
83.5
(28.6)
87.4
(30.8)
85.1
(29.5)
79.3
(26.3)
70.1
(21.2)
61.1
(16.2)
52.1
(11.2)
68.3
(20.2)
Average low °F (°C) 32.7
(0.4)
34.4
(1.3)
40.5
(4.7)
48.9
(9.4)
57.9
(14.4)
67.1
(19.5)
71.9
(22.2)
70.7
(21.5)
65.3
(18.5)
54.0
(12.2)
44.6
(7.0)
36.1
(2.3)
52.1
(11.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 17.6
(−8.0)
21.2
(−6.0)
27.2
(−2.7)
35.7
(2.1)
45.7
(7.6)
55.5
(13.1)
63.1
(17.3)
61.6
(16.4)
53.7
(12.1)
39.7
(4.3)
30.5
(−0.8)
21.7
(−5.7)
15.2
(−9.3)
Record low °F (°C) −3
(−19)
2
(−17)
14
(−10)
23
(−5)
36
(2)
45
(7)
54
(12)
49
(9)
40
(4)
27
(−3)
17
(−8)
5
(−15)
−3
(−19)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.40
(86)
3.12
(79)
3.68
(93)
3.41
(87)
3.41
(87)
4.26
(108)
5.14
(131)
5.52
(140)
4.76
(121)
3.42
(87)
3.15
(80)
3.26
(83)
46.53
(1,182)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 2.4
(6.1)
2.0
(5.1)
0.2
(0.51)
trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 1.2
(3.0)
5.8
(15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.4 9.5 10.6 10.1 10.6 9.9 11.1 10.1 8.8 7.6 8.5 9.8 117.0
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.6 1.3 0.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 4.0
Average relative humidity (%) 66.3 65.6 64.6 62.8 68.8 70.6 73.3 75.2 74.4 72.1 68.5 67.0 69.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.5 175.2 229.3 252.8 271.7 280.1 278.3 260.4 231.4 208.3 175.7 160.4 2,695.1
Percent possible sunshine 56 58 62 64 62 64 62 62 62 60 57 53 61
Average ultraviolet index 2 4 5 7 8 10 9 9 7 5 3 2 6
Source #1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[39][40][41]
Source #2: Weather Atlas [42]

DemographicsWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
17902,959
18006,926134.1%
18109,19332.7%
18208,478−7.8%
18309,81415.8%
184010,92911.4%
185014,32631.1%
186014,6202.1%
187019,22931.5%
188021,96614.2%
189034,87158.7%
190046,62433.7%
191067,45244.7%
1920115,77771.6%
1930129,71012.0%
1940144,33511.3%
1950213,51347.9%
1960305,87243.3%
1970307,9510.7%
1980266,979−13.3%
1990261,229−2.2%
2000234,403−10.3%
2010242,8033.6%
Est. 2018244,076[2]0.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[43]
1790–1960[44] 1900–1990[45]
1990–2000[46]
[2]
Population age distribution for Norfolk

As of the census[47] of 2010, there were 242,803 people, 86,210 households, and 51,898 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,362.8 people per square mile (1,684.4/km2). There were 94,416 housing for 1 last update 2020/06/03 units at an average density of 1,757.3 per square mile (678.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 47.1% White, 43.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.6% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 44.3% of the population in 2010,[48] down from 68.5% in 1970.[49] As of the census[47] of 2010, there were 242,803 people, 86,210 households, and 51,898 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,362.8 people per square mile (1,684.4/km2). There were 94,416 housing units at an average density of 1,757.3 per square mile (678.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 47.1% White, 43.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.6% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 44.3% of the population in 2010,[48] down from 68.5% in 1970.[49]

There were 86,210 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.9% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.07.

The age distribution was 24.0% under the age of 18, 18.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 16.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males. This large gender imbalance is due to the military presence in the city, most notably Naval Station Norfolk.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,815, and the median income for a family was $36,891. Males had a median income of $25,848 versus $21,907 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,372. About 15.5% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those ages 65 or over.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for For the year of 2007, Norfolk had a total crime index of 514.7 per 100,000 residents. This was above the national average of 320.9 that year. For 2007, the city experienced 48 homicides, for a murder rate of 21.1 per 100,000 residents. Total crime had decreased when compared to the year 2000, which the city had a total crime index of 546.3. The highest murder rate Norfolk has experienced for the 21st century was in 2005 when its rate was 24.5 per 100,000 residents. For the year 2007 per 100,000, Norfolk experienced 21.1 murders, 42.6 rapes, 399.3 robberies, 381.3 assaults, 743.3 burglaries, and 450.6 automobile thefts.[50] According to the Congressional Quarterly Press ''s largest naval installation. Located on Sewell''s Allied Command Transformation.[53]

The region also plays an important role in defense contracting, with particular emphasis in the shipbuilding and ship repair businesses for the city of Norfolk. Major private shipyards located in Norfolk or the Hampton Roads area include: Huntington Ingalls Industries (formerly Northrop Grumman Newport News) in Newport News, BAE Systems Norfolk Ship Repair, General Dynamics NASSCO Norfolk, and Colonna''s Norfolk Naval Shipyard is just across the Downtown Tunnel in Portsmouth. Most contracts fulfilled by these shipyards are issued by the Navy, though some private commercial repair also takes place. Over 35% of Gross Regional Product (which includes the entire Norfolk-Newport News-Virginia Beach MSA), is attributable to defense spending, and that 75% of all regional growth since 2001 is attributable to increases in defense spending.[54]

A view of Norfolk from Portsmouth

After the military, the second largest and most important industry for Hampton Roads and Norfolk based on economic impact are the region''s largest and fastest container cranes.[55] Together, the three terminals of the VPA handled a total of over 2 million TEUs and 475,000 tons of breakbulk cargo in 2006, making it the second busiest port on the east coast of North America by total cargo volume after the Port of New York and New Jersey.[56]

In addition to NIT, Norfolk is home to Lambert''s largest shipping line, A. P. Moller-Maersk Group, have their North American headquarters in Norfolk.[59][60][61] Major companies headquartered in Norfolk include Norfolk Southern,[62] Landmark Communications,[63] Dominion Enterprises,[64] FHC Health Systems (parent company of ValueOptions),[65] Portfolio Recovery Associates,[66] and BlackHawk Products Group.[67]

Nauticus and USS Wisconsin
Half Moone Cruise & Celebration Center in Norfolk, Virginia.

Though Virginia Beach and Williamsburg have traditionally been the centers of tourism for the region, the rebirth of downtown Norfolk and the construction of a cruise ship pier at the foot of Nauticus in downtown has driven tourism to become an increasingly important part of the city''s terminal has received favorable reviews from both tourists and the cruise lines who enjoy its proximity to the city''s Hospital of the King''s foremost art museum and is considered by The New York Times to be the finest in the state.[73] Of particular note is the extensive glass collection, the Glass Studio,[74] the 1792 Moses Myers House, the ca. 1794 Willoughby-Baylor House and American neoclassical marble sculptures. Since opening in 1933, the museum''s largest animal rights organization, is based in Norfolk.[79]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for The Hermitage Foundation Museum, located in an early 20th-century Tudor-style home on a 12-acre (49,000 m2) estate fronting the Lafayette River, features an eclectic collection of Asian and Western art, including Chinese bronze and ceramics, Persian rugs, and ivory carvings.[80] Norfolk has a variety of performing groups with regular seasons.

Harrison Opera House

The Virginia Opera was founded in Norfolk in 1974. Its artistic director since its inception has been Peter Mark,[81] who conducted his 100th opera production for the VOA in 2008. Though performances are staged statewide, the company''s leading regional theaters and produces a full season of plays in the Wells Theatre downtown. The company shares facilities with the Governor''

The Virginia Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1920 and directed by JoAnn Falletta, has been a regular staple on the regional fine arts scene. Most Norfolk performances take place at Chrysler Hall in the Scope complex downtown. The orchestra also provides musicians for many other performing arts organizations in the area.[84]

Large-scale concerts are held at either the Norfolk Scope arena or the Ted Constant Convocation Center at ODU, while The Norva provides a more intimate atmosphere for smaller groups. Other Norfolk cultural venues include the Attucks Theatre, the Jeanne and George Roper Performing Arts Center (formerly the Loew''s long multicultural heritage.[86]

Sports[edit]

Main article: Sports in Norfolk, Virginia

Norfolk serves as home to the two highest level professional franchises in the state of Virginia — the Norfolk Tides plays Triple-A baseball in the International League, and the Norfolk Admirals play ice hockey in the ECHL. Norfolk has two universities with Division I sports teams — the Old Dominion Monarchs and the Norfolk State University Spartans — which provide many sports including football, basketball, and baseball.[87][88][89][90][91]

From 1970 to 1976, Norfolk served as the home court (along with Hampton, Richmond, and Roanoke) for the Virginia Squires regional professional basketball franchise of the now-defunct American Basketball Association (ABA). From 1970 to 1971, the Squires played their Norfolk home games at the Old Dominion University Fieldhouse. In November 1971, the Squires played their Norfolk home games at the new Norfolk Scope arena, until the team and the ABA league folded in May 1976.[92]

In 1971, Norfolk built an entertainment and sports complex, featuring Chrysler Hall and the 13,800-seat Norfolk Scope indoor arena, located in the northern section of downtown. Norfolk Scope has served as a venue for major events including the American Basketball Association All-Star Game in 1974,[93] and the first and second NCAA Women''s Final Four) in 1982 and 1983.[94][95]

Norfolk is also home to the Norfolk Blues Rugby Football Club.

National Wrestling Alliance, Jim Crockett Promotions, World Championship Wrestling, World Wrestling Entertainment had wrestling show at Norfolk Arena and Scope many times from 1960s with many times Pay Per View event. 6 times Heavyweight Wrestling World Champion Lou Thesz lived in Norfolk and he had wrestling school name is Virginia Wrestling Academy at downtown on 1988.[96][97]

Parks for 1 last update 2020/06/03 and recreationParks and recreation for 1 last update 2020/06/03 [[edit]

Canal at the Norfolk Botanical Garden

Town Point Park in downtown plays host to a wide variety of annual events from early spring through late fall. Harborfest, the region''s proximity and attachment to the water. The Parade of Sails (numerous tall sailing ships from around the world form in line and sail past downtown before docking at the marina), music concerts, regional food, and a large fireworks display highlight this three-day festival.[98] Bayou Boogaloo and Cajun Food Festival, a celebration of the Cajun people and culture, had small beginnings. This three-day festival during the third week of June has become one of the largest in the region and, in addition to serving up Cajun cuisine, also features Cajun music.[98] Norfolk''s top jazz performers. It is held in August.[98] The Town Point Virginia Wine Festival has become a showcase for Virginia-produced wines and has enjoyed increasing success over the years. Virginia''s Day annual parade in the city''s rich Irish heritage.[99]

Virginia Zoo

Norfolk has a variety of parks[100] and open spaces in its city parks system. The city maintains three beaches on its north shore in the Ocean View area. Five additional parks contain picnic facilities and playgrounds for children. The city also has some community pools open to city residents.[101]

The Norfolk Botanical Garden, opened in 1939, is a 155-acre (0.6 km2) botanical garden and arboretum located near the Norfolk International Airport. It is for 1 last update 2020/06/03 open year-round.[102] The Norfolk Botanical Garden, opened in 1939, is a 155-acre (0.6 km2) botanical garden and arboretum located near the Norfolk International Airport. It is open year-round.[102]

The Virginia Zoological Park, opened in 1900, is a 65-acre (260,000 m2) zoo with hundreds of animals on display, including the critically endangered Siberian tiger and threatened white rhino.[103]

The city is also known for its ""Mermaids_on_Parade"" a public art program launched in 2002 to place mermaid statues all over the city. Tourists can take a walking tour of downtown and locate 17 mermaids while others can be found further afield.[104]

GovernmentWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [editWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ]

Presidential Elections Results[105]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 25.9% 21,552 68.4% 57,023 5.8% 4,810
2012 26.6% 23,147 72.0% 62,687 1.4% 1,209
2008 28.1% 24,814 71.0% 62,819 0.9% 813
2004 37.4% 26,401 61.7% 43,518 0.9% 651
2000 35.4% 21,920 61.7% 38,221 2.9% 1,805
1996 31.1% 18,693 62.6% 37,655 6.3% 3,776
1992 32.4% 22,362 54.5% 37,602 13.1% 9,063
1988 44.3% 30,538 54.8% 37,778 0.8% 575
1984 48.2% 36,360 51.5% 38,913 0.3% 243
1980 40.9% 27,506 52.3% 35,118 6.8% 4,576
1976 39.9% 28,099 55.8% 39,295 4.3% 3,008
1972 58.0% 38,385 38.9% 25,737 3.2% 2,095
1968 33.9% 22,302 43.3% 28,477 22.9% 15,050
1964 35.8% 18,429 62.8% 32,388 1.4% 729
1960 43.5% 17,174 55.8% 22,037 0.7% 262
1956 54.0% 18,650 42.2% 14,571 3.8% 1,304
1952 54.3% 14,166 45.5% 11,862 0.2% 46
1948 40.9% 7,556 50.8% 9,370 8.3% 1,534
1944 29.2% 4,958 70.7% 12,010 0.2% 28
1940 24.4% 3,485 75.4% 10,783 0.3% 36
1936 23.3% 3,229 76.3% 10,561 0.4% 59
1932 32.7% 4,403 65.5% 8,814 1.9% 250
1928 58.8% 8,392 41.2% 5,888
1924 30.9% 2,447 63.9% 5,061 5.3% 416
1920 28.4% 2,386 70.7% 5,953 0.9% 78
1916 22.4% 963 75.4% 3,234 2.2% 95
1912 4.6% 195 83.7% 3,539 11.7% 494

Norfolk is an independent city with services that both counties and cities in Virginia provide, such as a sheriff, social services, and a court system. Norfolk operates under a council-manager form of government.

Norfolk city government consists of a city council with representatives from seven districts serving in a legislative and oversight capacity, as well as a popularly elected, at-large mayor. The city manager serves as head of the executive branch and supervises all city departments and executing policies adopted by the Council. Citizens in each of the five wards elect one council representative each to serve a four-year term. There are two additional council members elected from two citywide "" The city council meets at City Hall weekly[106] and, as of May 2016, consists of: Mayor Kenneth Cooper Alexander; Mamie Johnson, Ward 3; Angelia Williams, Superward 7; Paul R. Riddick, Ward 4; Vice Mayor Dr. Theresa W. Whibley, Ward 2; Martin Thomas, Ward 1; Andria McClellan, Superward 6; Thomas R. Smigiel, Jr., Ward 5.[106]

List of mayors of Norfolk, Virginia[107][108]
  • Samuel Boush, 1736 (died in office)[109]
  • George Newton, 1736 etc.
  • John Hutchings, 1737 etc.[110]
  • John Taylor, 1739 etc.
  • Samuel Smith
  • Josiah Smith, 1741 etc.
  • John Phripp, 1744 etc.
  • Edward Pugh
  • Thomas Newton
  • John Tucker, 1748 etc.
  • Robert Tucker, 1749 etc.
  • Durham Hall
  • Wilson Newton, 1751 etc.
  • Christopher Perkins, 1752 etc.
  • George Abyvon, 1754 etc.
  • Richard Kelsick
  • John Phripp
  • Paul Loyall, 1762 etc.
  • Archibald Campbell
  • Lewis Hansford
  • Maximilian Calvert, 1765 etc.
  • James Taylor, 1766 etc.
  • Cornelius Calvert, 1768 etc.
  • Charles Thomas, 1770 etc.
  • Thomas Newton, Jr., 1780 etc.
  • George Kelly, 1783 and 1788
  • Robert Taylor, 1784
  • Cary H. Hansford
  • Benjamin Pollard, 1787
  • Robert Taylor, 1789 and 1793
  • John Boush
  • Cary H. Hansford
  • Thomas Newton, Jr., 1792 etc.
  • John Ramsay
  • Seth Foster
  • Samuel Moseley
  • George Loyall
  • Baylor Hill
  • John K. Read
  • Seth Foster
  • John Cowper
  • William Vaughan
  • Thomas H. Parker
  • Miles King, Sr., 1804 etc.
  • Luke Wheeler, 1805
  • Thomas H. Parker, 1806
  • Richard E. Lee, 1807
  • John E. Holt, 1808-1832, various nonsequential years[111]
  • William Boswell Lamb, 1810, 1812, 1814, 1816, and 1823[112]
  • John Tabb, 1818 etc.
  • Wright Southgate, 1819 etc.
  • George W. Camp
  • William A. Armistead
  • Isaac Talbot
  • Daniel C. Barraud
  • George T. Kennon
  • Thomas Williamson
  • Giles B. Cook
  • Miles King, Jr., 1832
  • W.D. Delaney, 1843
  • Simon S. Stubbs, 1851 etc.
  • Hunter Woodis, 1853, 1855 (died in office)
  • Ezra T. Summers
  • Finlay F. Ferguson
  • William Wilson Lamb, 1858-1863[113]
  • William H. Brooks, 1863
  • James L. Belote, 1864
  • Thomas C. Tabb
  • John R. Ludlow, 1866 etc.
  • Francis DeCordy [114]
  • John B. Whitehead, 1870 etc.
  • John S. Tucker, 1876-1880
  • William Lamb, 1880-1886
  • Barton Myers, 1886-1888[115]
  • Richard G. Banks, 1888-1890[115]
  • E.M. Henry
  • Frank Morris
  • S. Marx
  • A.B. Cooke
  • Charles W. Pettit[116]
  • Wyndham R. Mayo, 1896-1898 and 1912-1918
  • C. Brooks Johnston, 1898-1901[113]
  • Nathaniel Beaman, 1901[113]
  • James Gregory Riddick, 1901-1912[117]
  • Albert L. Roper, 1918-1924
  • S. Heth Tyler, 1924-1932
  • E. Jeff Robertson
  • Phillip H. Mason
  • S.L. Slover
  • W.R.L. Taylor, 1934-1938
  • John A. Gurkin
  • Joseph D. Wood, 1940-1944
  • James W. Reed
  • R.D. Cooke
  • Pretlow Darden, 1949-1950
  • W. Fred Duckworth, 1950-1962[118]
  • Roy Butler Martin, Jr., 1962-1974
  • Irvine B. Hill, 1974-1976
  • Vincent J. Thomas, 1976-1984
  • Joseph A. Leafe
  • Mason Andrews, 1992-1994[119]
  • Paul D. Fraim, 1994-2016[120]
  • Kenneth Cooper Alexander, 2016-

The City government has an infrastructure to create close working relationships with its citizens. Norfolk''s police department also provides support for neighborhood watch programs including a citizens''s 2nd congressional district, served by U.S. Representative Elaine Luria (Democrat) and in Virginia''s School for the Arts which holds performances and classes at the Wells Theatre.

The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School

Norfolk is home to three public universities and one private. It also hosts a community college campus in downtown. Old Dominion University, founded as the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary in 1930, became an independent institution in 1962 and now offers degrees in 68 undergraduate and 95 (60 masters/35 doctoral) graduate degree programs. Eastern Virginia Medical School, founded as a community medical school by the surrounding jurisdictions in 1973, is noted for its research into reproductive medicine[127] and is located in the region''s first public library, consists of one main library, one anchor library, ten branch libraries and a bookmobile. The library also has a local history and genealogy room and contains government documents dating back to the 19th century. The libraries offer services such as computer classes, book reviews, tax forms, and online book clubs.[130]

Media[edit]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Norfolk''s Mace and Crown, Norfolk State University''s Marlin Chronicles.[131]

Coastal Virginia Magazine is a bi-monthly regional magazine for Norfolk and the Hampton Roads area.[132]

Hampton Roads Times is an online magazine for Norfolk and the Hampton Roads area.

Norfolk is served by a variety of radio stations on the AM and FM dials, with towers located around the Hampton Roads area. These cater to many different interests, including news, talk radio, and sports, as well as an eclectic mix of musical interests.[133]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Norfolk is served by several television stations. The Hampton Roads designated market area (DMA) is the 42nd largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).[134] The major network television affiliates are WTKR 3 (CBS), WAVY-TV 10 (NBC), WVEC 13 (ABC), WGNT 27 (CW), WTVZ 33 (MyNetworkTV), WVBT 43 (Fox), and WPXV 49 (Ion Television). The Public Broadcasting Service station is WHRO-TV 15. Norfolk residents also can receive independent stations, such as WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina and WGBS-LD broadcasting on channel 11 from Hampton.

Several major motion pictures have been filmed in and around Norfolk, including Rollercoaster (filmed at the former Ocean View Amusement Park), Navy Seals, and Mission: Impossible III (partially filmed at the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel).[135]

Central Radio controversy[edit]

In 2010 the Norfolk Redevelopment and Housing Authority moved to take over the property of Central Radio, a communications and engineering firm, and other businesses and residential properties through eminent domain, and turn the land over to Old Dominion University. In response, Central Radio hung a 375-square foot banner reading, "" The city cited Central Radio for sign code infringement and ordered the banner removed.

In 2013 the Supreme Court of Virginia held that the city''s ruling. In April 2015, the Institute for Justice asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case as a First Amendment free speech issue.[137]

Infrastructure[edit]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Transportation[editWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ]

Main articles: Transportation in Norfolk and Hampton Roads Transit
Hampton Roads Transit bus at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital
Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel
Ferry to Portsmouth

Norfolk is linked with its neighbors through an extensive network of arterial and Interstate highways, bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnel complexes. The major east-west routes are Interstate 64, U.S. Route 58 (Virginia Beach Boulevard) and U.S. Route 60 (Ocean View Avenue). The major north-south routes are U.S. Route 13 and U.S. Route 460, also known as Granby Street. Other main roadways in Norfolk include Newtown Road, Waterside Drive, Tidewater Drive, and Military Highway. The Hampton Roads Beltway (I-64, I-264, I-464, and I-664) makes a loop around Norfolk.

Norfolk is primarily served by the Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORF, ICAO: KORF, FAA LID: ORF), now the region''s Northeast Regional service through the Norfolk station, located in downtown Norfolk adjacent to Harbor Park stadium. The line runs west along Norfolk Southern trackage, paralleling the US Route 460 corridor to Petersburg, thence on to Richmond and beyond. A high-speed rail connection at Richmond to both the Northeast Corridor and the Southeast High-Speed Rail Corridor are also under study.[141]

Greyhound Lines provides service from a central bus terminal in downtown Norfolk.[142]

In April the 1 last update 2020/06/03 2007, construction of the new $36 million Half Moone Cruise Terminal was completed downtown adjacent to the Nauticus Museum, providing a state-of-the-art permanent structure for various cruise lines and passengers wishing to embark from Norfolk. Previously, makeshift structures were used to embark/disembark passengers, supplies, and crew.[68] In April 2007, construction of the new $36 million Half Moone Cruise Terminal was completed downtown adjacent to the Nauticus Museum, providing a state-of-the-art permanent structure for various cruise lines and passengers wishing to embark from Norfolk. Previously, makeshift structures were used to embark/disembark passengers, supplies, and crew.[68]

The Intracoastal Waterway passes through Norfolk. Norfolk also has extensive frontage and port facilities on the navigable portions of the Western and Southern Branches for 1 last update 2020/06/03 of the Elizabeth River. The Intracoastal Waterway passes through Norfolk. Norfolk also has extensive frontage and port facilities on the navigable portions of the Western and Southern Branches of the Elizabeth River.

Light rail, bus, ferry and paratransit services are provided by Hampton Roads Transit (HRT), the regional public transport system headquartered in Hampton. HRT buses operate throughout Norfolk and South Hampton Roads and onto the Peninsula all the way up to Williamsburg. Other routes travel to Smithfield. HRT''s Department of Utilities. Norfolk receives its electricity from Dominion Virginia Power which has local sources including the Chesapeake Energy Center (a gas power plant), coal-fired plants in Chesapeake and Southampton County, and the Surry Nuclear Power Plant. Norfolk-headquartered Virginia Natural Gas, a subsidiary of AGL Resources, distributes natural gas to the city from storage plants in James City County and Chesapeake.

Norfolk''s Health.[147] The city of Norfolk has a tremendous capacity for clean fresh water. The city owns nine reservoirs: Lake Whitehurst, Little Creek Reservoir, Lake Lawson, Lake Smith, Lake Wright, Lake Burnt Mills, Western Branch Reservoir, Lake Prince and Lake Taylor.[148] The Virginia tidewater area has grown faster than the local freshwater supply. The river water has always been salty, and the fresh groundwater is no longer available in most areas. Currently, water for the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach is pumped from Lake Gaston (which straddles the Virginia-North Carolina border) into the City of Norfolk''s portion of water is treated by the City of Norfolk at Moores Bridges water treatment plant and then piped into Virginia Beach. The pipeline is 76 miles (122 km) long and 60 inches (1,500 mm) in diameter. Much of its follows the former right-of-way of an abandoned portion of the Virginian Railway.[149] It is capable of pumping 60 million gallons of water per day; Virginia Beach and Chesapeake are partners in the project.[150]

The city provides wastewater the 1 last update 2020/06/03 services for residents and transports wastewater to the regional Hampton Roads Sanitation District treatment plants.[147] The city provides wastewater services for residents and transports wastewater to the regional Hampton Roads Sanitation District treatment plants.[147]

Healthcare the 1 last update 2020/06/03 [[edit] the 1 last update 2020/06/03 [[edit]

Sentara Norfolk General Hospital

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Because of the prominence of the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and the Hampton VA Medical Center in Hampton, Norfolk has had a strong role in medicine. Norfolk is served by Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Sentara Leigh Hospital, and Bon Secours DePaul Medical Center. The city is also home to the Children''s Daughters and Lake Taylor Transitional Care Hospital.[151]

Norfolk is home to Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS), which is known for its specialists in diabetes, dermatology, and obstetrics. It achieved international fame on March 1, 1980, when Drs. Georgianna and Howard Jones opened the first in vitro fertilization [152] clinic in the U.S. at EVMS. The country''s Seattle Seahawks

  • Clarence Clemons, saxophonist with Bruce Springsteen''s 2nd district, and former United States Navy Commander.
  • Matt Maeson, musician.
  • William Magee, plastic surgeon, founder of Operation Smile
  • Alex Marshall, journalist and author
  • Samuel Mason, Revolutionary War soldier and American outlaw
  • James Michael McAdoo, basketball player at University of North Carolina
  • John Mullan, Army officer and builder of Mullan Road
  • Lenda Murray, IFBB professional bodybuilder
  • Barton Myers, Architect
  • Steven Newsome, arts and museum administrator[157]
  • Wayne Newton, singer and actor who resides in Las Vegas
  • Norfolk Four, four US Navy men stationed at Norfolk in 1997: Danial Williams, Joseph J. Dick, Eric Wilson, and Derek Tice, and who were wrongfully convicted in 1999 and 2000 in a rape/murder case based on false confessions and sentenced to life. They were released from prison in 2009 under a conditional pardon. The last convictions were overturned in 2016, and they were granted full pardons in 2017 by Governor Terry McAuliffe. In December 2018 they received a settlement from the city and state.
  • Nottz, musician, hip-hop producer
  • Richard G. L. Paige, one of the first African-Americans delegates in Virginia
  • John Parker, Abolitionist and inventor
  • Barbara Perry, actress
  • Hughie Prince, film composer and songwriter
  • Emmy Raver-Lampman, actress and singer
  • Leah Ray, singer and actress
  • Tim Reid, actor, WKRP in Cincinnati
  • Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first president of Liberia
  • Larry Sabato, American political scientist
  • Ed Schultz, American television and radio personality
  • Rhea Seehorn, actress, Better Call Saul
  • Deborah Shelton, actress, Miss Virginia USA 1970, Miss USA 1970
  • John Wesley Shipp, actor, The Flash
  • Bruce Smith, NFL defensive end for Buffalo Bills
  • Keely Smith, singer and recording artist
  • Joe Smith, former NBA basketball player
  • Joseph Stika, Coast Guard vice admiral
  • Margaret Sullavan, Oscar-nominated actress
  • Timbaland, musician, hip-hop producer
  • Doris Eaton Travis, dancer and actress
  • Scott Travis, drummer for rock bands Racer X, Judas Priest, Fight and Thin Lizzy
  • Justin Upton, MLB outfielder for Detroit Tigers
  • Melvin Upton, Jr, MLB outfielder for Toronto Blue Jays
  • Gene Vincent, member of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
  • Benjamin Watson, American football tight end
  • Joe Weatherly, former NASCAR driver
  • Pernell Whitaker, boxer, 1984 Olympic gold medalist, 4-division world champion
  • Thomas Wilkins, symphony conductor
  • Patrick Wilson, Golden Globe and Emmy-nominated actor
  • Harold G. Wren (1921-2016), dean of three law schools
  • David Wright, MLB third baseman for New York Mets
  • Sister cities[edit the 1 last update 2020/06/03 ]]

    Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Norfolk has ten sister cities:[158]

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
    2. ^ Official records for Norfolk kept January 1874 to December 1945 at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown, and at Norfolk Int''s troubles, Norfolk plant is likely to keep on truckin''s History: Compassion in Action""nofollow""external text""http://www.peta.org/factsheet/files/FactsheetDisplay.asp?ID=107""reference-accessdate""nowrap""ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=PETA%27s+History%3A+Compassion+in+Action&rft.pub=Peta.org&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.peta.org%2Ffactsheet%2Ffiles%2FFactsheetDisplay.asp%3FID%3D107&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ANorfolk%2C+Virginia""Z3988""mw-deduplicated-inline-style""mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291""cite_note-82""mw-cite-backlink""#cite_ref-82""reference-text""citation web""nofollow""external text""http://www.hermitagefoundation.org/index.asp""Hermitage Foundation 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[o]""o""left-navigation""p-namespaces""navigation""vectorTabs""p-namespaces-label""p-namespaces-label""ca-nstab-main""selected""/wiki/Norfolk,_Virginia""View the content page [c]""c""ca-talk""/wiki/Talk:Norfolk,_Virginia""discussion""Discuss improvements to the content page [t]""t""p-variants""navigation""vectorMenu emptyPortlet""p-variants-label""checkbox""vectorMenuCheckbox""p-variants-label""p-variants-label""menu""right-navigation""p-views""navigation""vectorTabs""p-views-label""p-views-label""ca-view""collapsible selected""/wiki/Norfolk,_Virginia""ca-edit""collapsible""/w/index.php?title=Norfolk,_Virginia&action=edit""Edit this page [e]""e""ca-history""collapsible""/w/index.php?title=Norfolk,_Virginia&action=history""Past revisions of this page [h]""h""p-cactions""navigation""vectorMenu emptyPortlet""p-cactions-label""checkbox""vectorMenuCheckbox""p-cactions-label""p-cactions-label""menu""p-search""search""searchInput""/w/index.php""searchform""simpleSearch""search""search""Search 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[x]""x""n-sitesupport""https://donate.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FundraiserRedirector?utm_source=donate&utm_medium=sidebar&utm_campaign=C13_en.wikipedia.org&uselang=en""Support us""n-shoplink""//shop.wikimedia.org""Visit the Wikipedia store""portal""navigation""p-interaction""p-interaction-label""p-interaction-label""body""n-help""/wiki/Help:Contents""Guidance on how to use and edit Wikipedia""n-aboutsite""/wiki/Wikipedia:About""Find out about Wikipedia""n-portal""/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal""About the project, what you can do, where to find things""n-recentchanges""/wiki/Special:RecentChanges""A list of recent changes in the wiki [r]""r""n-contactpage""//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us""How to contact Wikipedia""portal""navigation""p-tb""p-tb-label""p-tb-label""body""t-whatlinkshere""/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Norfolk,_Virginia""List of all English Wikipedia pages containing links to this page [j]""j""t-recentchangeslinked""/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLinked/Norfolk,_Virginia""nofollow""Recent changes in pages linked from this page [k]""k""t-upload""/wiki/Wikipedia:File_Upload_Wizard""Upload files [u]""u""t-specialpages""/wiki/Special:SpecialPages""A list of all special pages [q]""q""t-permalink""/w/index.php?title=Norfolk,_Virginia&oldid=952407742""Permanent link to this revision of the page""t-info""/w/index.php?title=Norfolk,_Virginia&action=info""More information about this page""t-wikibase""https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityPage/Q49231""Link to connected data repository item [g]""g""t-cite""/w/index.php?title=Special:CiteThisPage&page=Norfolk%2C_Virginia&id=952407742&wpFormIdentifier=titleform""Information on how to cite this page""portal""navigation""p-wikibase-otherprojects""p-wikibase-otherprojects-label""p-wikibase-otherprojects-label""body""wb-otherproject-link 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