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For a list of stove types, see Stove (disambiguation).
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(September 2011)
A 19th-century example of a wood-burning stove

A wood-burning stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as sawdust bricks. Generally the appliance consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed firebox, often lined by fire brick, and one or more air controls (which can be manually or automatically operated depending upon the stove). The first wood-burning stove was patented in Strasbourg in 1557, two centuries before the Industrial Revolution, which would make iron an inexpensive and common material, so such stoves were high end consumer items and only gradually spread in use.[1][a]

The stove is connected by ventilating stove pipe to a suitable flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney.

Contents

Operation[edit]

Air for 1 last update 2020/07/11 supplyAir supply[edit]

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A damper in a stove chimney flue (1) controls air supply by being set open (2) or closed (3).

Keeping the air flowing correctly through a wood-burning stove is essential for safe and efficient operation of the stove. Fresh air needs to enter the firebox to provide oxygen for the fire; as the fire burns, the smoke must be allowed to rise through the stove pipe, and exit through the chimney. To regulate air flow, there may be damper devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes.

By opening or closing the dampers, air flow can be increased or decreased, which can fan the fire in the firebox, or "" it by restricting airflow and reducing the flames. The dampers can usually be accessed by turning knobs or handles attached to the damper. Some stoves adjust their own airflow using mechanical or electronic thermostatic devices.

The highest heating efficiencies on closed appliances can be attained by controlling the various supplies of air to the stove (operating the air controls correctly). On modern stoves, owner''tightly packed'' high x 4'' wide). Firewood may be purchased by the cord, or by a fraction of a cord. The term "" is commonly used to describe varying volumes of wood. Nominally it means 4'' x an unspecified third measurement. When purchasing, cutting, or collecting firewood, it is good to be aware of the difference between hardwood and softwood. Both hardwood and softwood have similar energy contents by mass, but not by volume. In other words, a piece of hardwood would usually be heavier and have more available energy than the same sized piece of softwood. Hardwoods, derived from trees such as oak and ash, may burn at a slower rate, resulting in sustained output. Many softwoods are derived from conifers, which are fast growing and may burn at a faster rate. This is one reason why softwood pellets (for pellet stoves) are popular.

Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for The primary advantage of hardwoods are that they tend to contain more potential energy than the same volume of a softwood, thus increasing the amount of potential heat that can be stacked into one stoveload. Hardwood tends to form and maintain a bed of hot coals, which release lower amounts of heat for a long time. Hardwoods are ideal for long, low burns, especially in stoves with a poor ability to sustain a low burn, or in mild weather when high heat output is not required.

Softwoods, in contrast, tend to burn hot and fast with little coaling. They may leave less ash than hardwoods. Softwoods are ideal for fast, hot burns. They produce excellent heat and do not fill the stove with coals, a frequent problem for those pushing their hardwood-fired stoves hard to get the maximum possible heat out of them.

Not all hardwoods have a higher potential energy content than all softwoods. Wood varies by species and even individual trees (a tree with many years of slow growth will have a higher BTU content than a tree of the same species and same size than a tree with a few years of rapid growth). Osage orange, also known as hedge, is perhaps the highest-BTU wood that is common in North America.

Many softwoods will season (dry) much more quickly than many hardwoods. For example, pine that has been cut, split, stacked and topcovered will usually be ready to burn in one year; oak may be expected to take three years under the same conditions.

Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for Softwood mythology[edit][edit]

Softwood is often said to be dangerous to burn because it generates more dangerous creosote than hardwood. This myth is pervasive in the North American northeast, where both types of wood are commonly available. It is not common in the northwest, where most full-time wood burners burn pine and fir exclusively. A basic understanding of what creosote is and how it accumulates in your flue is all you need to rid yourself of this byproduct.

It is possible that this myth originated with old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces. These "" did not require seasoned wood, and frequently did not receive it. As a result, they often experienced very low flue temperatures- usually in flues that were not insulated as modern flues are. The combination of low firebox temperatures due to high moisture content in the wood and low flue temperatures due to lack of insulation led to high levels of creosote accumulation. Burning a wood that emits a lot of sparks (such as pine) in an old-fashioned fireplace or stove will lead to sparks going directly into the flue, which can lead to a dangerous chimney fire if the flue is coated in creosote.

Modern stoves which are operated properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause the 1 last update 2020/07/11 creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood. Modern stoves which are operated properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood.

Moisture content and creosote the 1 last update 2020/07/11 [[edit for 1 last update 2020/07/11 ]]

Dry wood produces more usable heat than wet wood, since the energy used to evaporate the water from the wood is lost up the chimney. Freshly cut wood (known as green wood) has a high moisture content. Different wood species have different moisture contents, which also vary tree to tree. Burning fuel that is mostly water uses much of the combustion energy to evaporate the water. This results in low firebox temperatures and low flue temperatures.

Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying (""), for a period of several months in summer the 1 last update 2020/07/11 weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2] Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying (""), for a period of several months in summer weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2]

Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood for 1 last update 2020/07/11 can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln. The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln.

All wood will release creosote vapors when burned. Modern stoves will burn the vapors, either via direct secondary combustion or via a catalyst. Very little, if any, creosote will escape a properly operating modern stove'' recommendations where a wood stove is in use. Not all smoke detectors detect carbon monoxide.

Fuel accelerants such as coal, grease, oil, gasoline, kerosene, plastics, and so on, also must never be added to firewood in a wood stove, since the flames produced may easily overwhelm the wood compartment and stove pipes and create a house fire.

UK smoke control areasBarbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for [edit]

Under the United Kingdom''s mandatory smoke emission limit for wood stoves in 2019 was 4.5 grams of smoke per hour (g/h) under Step 1 of the revised standards of performance for wood burning room heaters.[7][8] Washington State has also had requirements of a maximum of 4.5 grams per hour.

Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for On May 15, 2020, the standard for smoke will be lowered to 2.0 g/h. Heaters using the optional cord wood test method must meet a standard of 2.5 g/h.[7]

Justa stoves, rocket stoves and haybox stoves[edit]

Main article: Cook stove

In some places, such as the Caribbean, Central America and South America, many houses have wood-burning stoves that are used indoors without any means of proper ventilation. Smoke stays in the house, where it is breathed in by the residents, harming their health. Nearly 2 million people are killed each year by indoor air pollution caused by open-fire cooking, mostly women and children, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The cutting of large amounts of firewood also endangers local forests and ecosystems.[9]

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Rotary International are actively assisting homeowners in constructing more fuel-efficient and safe wood-burning stoves. One design is called the Justa stove, Just stove, Ecostove, or La Estufa Justa. Justa stoves are made out of such materials as adobe, cement, and pumice, with chimneys. Other wood-burning stoves types are also being introduced to these communities, such as rocket stoves and haybox stoves. A rocket stove is up to 30% more fuel efficient than a Justa stove, but a small portable rocket stove (for cooking) does not have a chimney and is suitable for outdoor use only. Bigger rocket stoves are connected to chimney or flue-exhaust pipe. The haybox stove is another outdoor wood-burning stove. Haybox stoves use straw, wool, or foam as an insulator, reducing fuel use by up to 70%.[10]

Use in Europe[edit]

Italy is one of the biggest markets for pellet-burning stoves in Europe, having around 30% of all homes using wood for some heat. This means about 5 million homes have a wood fueled stove or cooker.[citation needed]

Types for 1 last update 2020/07/11 [[editBarbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for ]

  • Franklin stove, originally invented by Benjamin Franklin, is a more efficient type of wood-burning fireplace. It was finicky and never caught on, but many stoves continue to be referred to as "" stoves.
  • Carl Johan Cronstedt is reported to have increased efficiency of wood-burning stoves by a factor of eight in the mid-18th century.
  • A Fireplace insert converts a wood-burning fireplace to a wood-burning stove. A fireplace insert is a self-contained unit that rests inside the existing fireplace and chimney. They produce less smoke and require less wood than a traditional fireplace. Fireplace inserts come in different sizes for large or small homes.[11]
  • Down draft or cross draft gasification stoves, i.e. Dunsley Yorkshire, Welkom 600, Avalon Arbor™ wood stove, XEOOS.[12]
  • Boiler Stoves provide hot water as well as space heating. A backboiler can be an optional insert added to the back of the firebox, or a wrap-around water jacket that is an integral to the stove''s output goes to space heating as opposed to heating water.
  • Rocket mass heater s are a type of fuel-efficient stove, named in the 1970s, but dating back millennia in concept. A super-hot chimney above the fire draws the flames sideways and up, blending hot fuel and air into a quick, hot, clean-burning fire that takes little wood, leaves little residue, and has lots of uses.[13]
  • Rocket mass heater in a tipi at Paul Wheaton''s show 101 Inventions That Changed the World, re-broadcast on 30 August 2016, which credited Ben Franklin as the inventor of the wood stove, ignoring the German origin. Franklin did patent an improved stove ca. 1744, including several variants such as a front of fireplace heating unit of cast iron, but his stove was based on existing stoves of German origin (i.e. amongst the many Pennsylvania Dutch) found in the Province of Pennsylvania.

ReferencesBarbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for [edit]

  1. ^ "". 1557: First patent issued for a wood conserving stove in Strasbourg.
  2. ^ William Turner Simpson, Kiln-drying time of split oak firewood, Volume 254 of Research note FPL U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1987, page 2
  3. ^ Greenberg, Gail (1981). Energy efficient building handbook. Business Communications Co. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-89336-283-6.
  4. ^ Planning Portal (UK). "" 2010-05-01.
  5. ^ Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), UK. "" Accessed 2010-12-06.
  6. ^ EPA.
  7. Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for ^ a b^ a b US EPA. "". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
  8. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "" 2010-02-22.
  9. ^ Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Setshow to Barbie Dollhouse Furniture Sets for "". Trees, Water & People. Retrieved March 8, 2012. the 1 last update 2020/07/11
  10. ^ Scott, Peter. "" (PDF). Aprovecho Research Center. Retrieved March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  11. ^ EPA. "" "" program. 2010-03-03.
  12. ^ Roth C., “Micro Gasification: Cooking with gas from biomass“ 1st edition, released January 2011 Published by GIZ HERA – Poverty-oriented Basic Energy Service.
  13. ^ Wisner, Erica. "". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
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